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Acute Patient Care Guidelines Bibliography

Nerve Agents

  1. Rotenberg JS, Newmark J. Nerve agent attacks on children: diagnosis and management, Pediatrics 2003; 112; 648-658
  2. Schexnayder S, James LP, Kearns G, Farrar HC. The pharmacokinetics of continuous infusion pralidoxime in children with organophosphate poisoning, Clinical Toxicology, 36(6), 549-555(1998)
  3. Pawar KS, Bhoite RR, Pillay CP, Chavan SC, Malshikare DS and Garad SG. Continuous pralidoxime infusion versus repeated bolus injection to treat organophosphorus poisoning: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2006; 368:2136-41
  4. Bevan M. Proposal for the inclusion of pralidoxime (for children) in the WHO model list of essential medicines. Second meeting of the subcommittee of the expert committee on the selection and use of essential medicines. Geneva, 29 September to 3 October 2008
  5. Kozer E (PI). Scopolamine treatment for patients with organophosphate poisoning (study). Assaf-Harofeh Medical Center (sponsor)
  6. Lynch M. Atropine use in children after nerve gas exposure. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, Vol 20, No6 (December), 2005
  7. Balali-Mood M, Shariat M. Treatment of organophosphate poisoning: experience of nerve agents and acute pesticide poisoning on the effects of oximes.
  8. Amitai Y, Almog S, Singer R, Hammer R, Bentur Y and Danon YAtropine poisoning in children during the Persian Gulf crisis: a national survey in Israel, JAMA, August 5, 1992-Vol 268, No. 5
  9. Eddleston M, Buckly NA, Eyer P and ATSDR. Nerve Agents Tabun (GA) CAS77-81-6; Sarin (GB) CAS 107-44-8; Soman (GD) CAS 96-64-0; and VX CAS 5078269-9.
  10. ATSDR. Nerve Agents Tabun (GA) CAS77-81-6; Sarin (GB) CAS 107-44-8; Soman (GD) CAS 96-64-0; and VX CAS 5078269-9.
  11. Bar-Meir E, Schein O, Eisenkraft A, Rubinshtein R, Grubstein A, Militanu A, Glikson M. Guidelines for treating cardiac manifestations of organophosphates poisoning with special emphasis on long QT and Torsades De Pointes, Full Test Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 2007, Vol 37, No 3 Pages 279-285

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Hydrogen Cyanide

  1. Geller RJ, Barthold C, Saiers JA, Hall AH. Pediatric cyanide poisoning: causes manifestations, management, and unmet needs. Pediatrics 2006; 118;2146-58. [PubMed Citation]
  2. Simeonova FP, Fishbein L. Hydrogen cyanide and cyanides: human health aspects, Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 62, WHO, Geneva 2004
  3. Alarie Yves. Toxicity of fire smoke: Critical reviews in toxicology, 32(4):259-289(2002)
  4. DerLauries CA, Burda AM, Wahl M. Hydroxocobalamin as a Cyanide Antidote. American Journal of Therapeutics 13, 161-165 (2006)
  5. Shepherd G, Velez LI. Role of hydoxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 2008 May, Vol. 42, 661669
  6. Haouach H, Fortin JL, Chaybany B, et al. Prehospital use of hydoxocobalamin in children exposed to fire smoke. SAMU 93, EA 3409, Bobigny, France
  7. Fortin JL, Giocanti JP, Ruttimann M, Kowalski JJ. Prehospital administration of hydroxocobalamin for smoke inhalation-associated cyanide poisoning: 8 years of experience in the Paris fire brigade. Clinical Toxicology, 44:1, 37-44
  8. Sauer SW, Keim ME. Hydroxocobalamin: improved public health readiness for cyanide disasters. Annals of Emergency Medicine, June 2001 37:6, 635641
  9. Borron SW, Baud FJ, Megarbane B, Bismuth C. Hydroxocobalamin for severe acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion or inhalation. American Journal of Emergency Medicine (2007) 25, 551-558
  10. Toxicological Profile for Cyanide; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, July 2006
  11. Cyanide (CDC)

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Pulmonary Agents

  1. Riffat F, Cheng A. Pediatric caustic ingestion: 50 consecutive cases and a review of the literature. Diseases of the Esophagus Vol 22, Issue 1, Feb 2009, pages 89-94
  2. Gunnarsson M, Walther S, Seidal T, Lennquist. Effects of inhalation of corticosteroids immediately after experimental chlorine gas lung injury. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection and Critical Care 2000, Vol 48, No 1 pages 101-107
  3. Jones R Wills B, Kang C. Chlorine Gas: An evolving hazardous material threat and unconventional weapon. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, May 2010, Vol XI, No 2, pages 151-156
  4. Vinsel P. Treatment of acute chlorine gas inhalation with nebulized sodium bicarbonate. J Emerg Med. 1990 May-June; 8(3):327-9
  5. Cevik Y, Onay M, Akmaz I, Sezigen S. Mass casualties from acute inhalation of chlorine gas. South Med J 2009 Dec;102(12): 1209-13
  6. Baker DJ. Management of respiratory failure in disasters. Resuscitation Volume 42, Issue 2, October 1999, Pages 125-131
  7. Warden Craig R. Respiratory agents: irritant gases, riot control agents, incapacitants, and caustics. Crit Care Clin 21 (2005) 719-737
  8. Russell D, Blain PG, Rice P. Clinical management of casualties exposed to lung damaging agents: a critical review. Emergency Medicine Journal 2006; 23:421424
  9. Wang J, Winskog, Edston E and Walthier SM. Inhaled and intravenous corticosteroids both attenuate chlorine gas-induced lung injury in pigs. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2005; 49:183-190
  10. Sciutto AM, Stotts RR, Hurt HH. Efficacy of ibuprofen and pentoxifylline in the treatment of phosgene-induced acute lung injury. J Appl Toxicology. 1996 Sep-Oct;16(5):381-4
  11. Sciuto A, Holcombe H. Therapeutic treatments of phosgene-induced lung injury, Inhalation Toxicology, 16:565-580, 2004
  12. Sciuto AM, Stickland PT, Kennedy TP, Gutner GH. Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine treatment after phosgene exposure in rabbits. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.1995 Mar;151(3Pt1):768-72
  13. Schonhofer B, Voshaar T, Kohler D. Long-term lung sequelae following accidental chlorine gas exposure. Respiration. 1996;63(3):155-9
  14. Scuito AM, Strickland PT, Kennedy TP, Gurtner GH. Postexposure treatment with aminophylline protects against phosgene-induced acute lung injury. Exp Lung Res. 1997 Jul-Aug;23(4):317-32
  15. Bonetto G, Corradi M, Carraro S, et. al. Longitudinal monitoring of lung injury in children after acute chlorine exposure in a swimming pool. Am J Respir Crit Care Med Vol 174. Pp 545-549, 2006
  16. Committee on Environmental Health and Committee on Infectious Diseases. Chemical-biological terrorism and its impact on children: a subject review. Pediatrics 2000; 105;662-670
  17. Phosgene (CDC)
  18. Borak J, Diller W. Phosgene exposure: mechanisms of injury and treatment strategies, J Occup Environ Med. 2000;43:110-119
  19. American Chemistry Council. Phosgene, Information on options for first aid and medical treatment, 2006,

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Blister Agents

  1. Toxicological profile for sulfur mustard (update). U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, September 2003
  2. Momeni AZ, Aminjavaheri M. Skin manifestations of mustard gas in a group of 14 children and teenagers: a clinical study. International Journal of dermatology, Vol33, No.3 March2994
  3. Yu CE, Burklow T and Madsen. Vesicant agents and children. Department of Pediatrics, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 6900 Georgia Ave NW Washington DC 20307-5001
  4. Sulfur Mustard (Mustard Gas) (CDC)
  5. Kehe K, Balszuweit F, Emmler J, Kreppel H, Jochum M, Thiermann H. Sulfur mustard research-strategies for the development of improved medical therapy Eplasty. 2008; 8: e32. Published online 2008 June 10.
  6. Kadar T, Dachir S, Sahar R, Fishbine E, Cohen M, Turetz J, Gutman H, Buch H, Brandeis R, Horwitz V, Solomon A, Amir A. Ocular injuries following sulfur mustard exposure-pathological mechanism and potential therapy, toxicology 263 (2009)59-69
  7. Hurst C, Petrali J, Barillo D, Graham J, Smith W, Urbanetti J, Sidell F. Vesicants

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  1. Holbrook P, Siegel D, Ochenschlager D, Boenning D, Brown K et al. Pediatric emergency preparedness training program, Childrens's National Medical Center, Washington DC September 2004
  2. Bailey B. Are there teratogenic risks associated with antidotes used in the acute management of poisoned pregnant women? Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology Volume 67, Issue 2 February 2003, Pages 133-140
  3. Hamilton MG, Lundy PM. Medical countermeasures to WMDs: defense research for civilian and military use. Toxicology Volume 233, Issues 1-3, 20 April 2007, Pages 8-12
  4. Managing hazardous materials incidents: medical management guidelines for acute chemical exposures. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Volume III, 2000
  5. Chemical Casualty Care Division. Field management of chemical casualties: Quick reference guide. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense
  6. Epstein Y, Linder N, Lubin D, Gale R, Gale J and Reichman B The incubator as a chemical warfare protective device in neonatal intensive care units. Isr J Med Sci 1991; 27:27:648-651
  7. Henretig FM, Cieslak TJ, Eitzen EM. Biological and chemical terrorism, J Pediatrics 2002;141:311-26
  8. Adkins-Bley K, Greenhill LM. Bioterrorism & pregnant women. Health Care Advocate, June/July 2002
  9. Rotenberg J, Burklow T, Selanikio, J. The Decontamination of Children, Pediatric Annals32:4 April 2003
  10. Sternberg P. The management of pediatric patient Victims during hazmat decontamination: Practical considerations for communication, 3/24/05 (Grey)
  11. Sternberg P: A manual for managing pediatric victims and their families during a mass casualty (including hazmat) Event, April 28, 2005 (Grey)
  12. Flomenbaum N, Goldfrank L, Hoffman R, Howland M, Lewin N, Nelson. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies Eighth Edition. Magraw- Hill, 2006
  13. Bergeron J, Bizjak G, Baudour C. 1st Responder Eighth Edition. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.Prentice -Hall Inc, 2008
  14. Braue E, Boardman C, Orr L Hurst C. Decontamination of chemical casualties
  15. Jagminas L. CBRNE - Chemical Decontamination (
  16. Markenson D, Redlener I. Pediatric preparedness for disasters and terrorism, a national consensus conference, Executive summary 2006
  17. SALT Mass Casualty Triage. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness ISSN: 1935-7893 , 2008 by the AMA and Lippincott Williams and Williams
  18. Subbarao I, Johnson C, Bond W, Schwid H, Wasser T, Deye G, Burkhart. Symptom based, algorithmic approach for handling the initial encounter with victims of a potential terrorist attack, Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, Sept-Oct 2005,
  19. Bond W, Subbarao I, Kimmel S, Kuklinski J, Johnson C, Eberhardt M, Vozenilek J. Testing the use of symptom-based terrorism triage algorithms with hospital based providers. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 6/20/2008, Vol 23, No.3.
  20. Lerner E, Schwartz R, Coule P, Pirrallo R. Use of SALT triage in a simulated mass casualty incident, prehospital Emergency Care 2010; 14:21-25
  21. Committee on Environmental Health and Committee on Infectious Diseases. Chemical-Biological Terrorism and its impact on children. Pediatrics 2000;105;662-670
  22. Medical Management of Chemical Casualties Handbook, Fourth Edition, February, 2007

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